How OBPs leverage Sebi, RBI regulatory ambiguity

Throughout 2019-2021, these platforms provided listed and unlisted bonds, enterprise debt, authorities securities (gsec), and sovereign gold bonds (SGBs). Nevertheless, since July 2022, when the Securities and Trade Board of India (Sebi) floated a session paper on regulating the OBPs, the regulatory setting witnessed some uncertainties.

The brand new guidelines enable OBPs to supply solely listed bonds, mandating them to get a stockbrokers licence in the event that they want to facilitate debt investments.

In November 2022, Sebi finalized the rules for OBPs, largely alongside the traces of the proposals floated earlier, with one main exception: OBPs aren’t allowed to supply unlisted bonds. Sebi refers to those bond platforms as OBPPs

Now, a number of OBPs have determined to supply unlisted bonds on a separate platform that doesn’t fall below the purview of Sebi. GoldenPi launched a brand new platform, Plus, in June, for retail traders to spend money on unlisted bonds. Regardless of Sebi barring OBPs from transacting in these devices, unlisted bonds have discovered a brand new residence and can proceed to operate in a regulatory gray space. That aside, gsecs and SGBs can even discover a place on these platforms, regardless that they’re traded on the inventory exchanges. That is so, as gsecs and SGBs are regulated by Reserve Financial institution of India, therefore, Sebi doesn’t need them to be on regulated on-line bond platforms, stated two individuals aware of the event, searching for anonymity.

Sebi is known to have requested RBI to make clear on this latest improvement for gsecs/SGBs, and should ultimately enable them on the regulated platforms.


Privately positioned bonds, also called unlisted bonds, are debt securities issued by corporations or entities that aren’t listed on acknowledged exchanges. These bonds are sometimes provided to a choose group of traders via a non-public placement quite than being made obtainable to retail traders for buying and selling.

Sebi allowed OBPs to solely commerce in listed bonds, whereas unlisted bonds aren’t approved for buying and selling on these platforms. OBPs providing listed company bonds should adhere to Sebi’s (Challenge and Itemizing of Non-Convertible Securities) Laws, 2021, which impose stringent pointers to forestall defaults and safeguard the pursuits of traders.

Listed company bonds are sometimes traded on exchanges such because the NSE and the BSE. Nevertheless, because of restricted liquidity, discovering consumers for the bonds with out important slippage can show to be difficult. Conversely, OBPs dealing in unlisted company bonds function inside a regulatory gray space, as there aren’t any particular rules governing their commerce. This lack of oversight creates data asymmetry, probably resulting in arbitrage alternatives.

Furthermore, in accordance with Sebi rules and the Firms Act, privately positioned bonds will be provided to solely 200 people in a monetary 12 months, excluding certified institutional consumers and staff of the issuing firm. This threshold ensures that bond choices stay categorized as personal placements and don’t set off the necessities of a public difficulty.

To checklist unlisted bonds, issuers should adjust to rules set by acknowledged inventory exchanges in India. This course of sometimes entails assembly particular standards and acquiring essential approvals from the inventory trade. By itemizing these bonds, issuers can present traders with each liquidity and potential entry to the market.

Nevertheless, the transfer by OBPs to supply unlisted bonds carries the danger of inadvertently triggering a deemed public difficulty if the variety of traders exceeds 200 (excluding QIBs and staff) after the preliminary personal placement. This example may come up if holders of unlisted bonds on OBP platforms resolve to promote them to new traders, thereby growing the variety of traders past the permissible restrict.

The prevalence of a deemed public difficulty can have repercussions, as seen within the Sahara fiasco. Within the Sahara case, the Supreme Court docket of India dominated that the issuance of optionally totally convertible debentures (OFCDs) by the group to over 49 people with out adhering to the general public difficulty rules was deemed to be a public difficulty. The court docket additionally imposed penalties on the corporate for regulatory violations and ordered it to return the funds with curiosity.

For defaults, the decision course of additionally differs, relying on whether or not the bonds are listed or unlisted. Within the case of listed bonds, OBPs could search help from debenture trustees, who can take authorized motion in opposition to the defaulting entity. Alternatively, for unlisted bonds, the decision course of entails approaching Debt Restoration Tribunals (DRT) or initiating insolvency proceedings below Insolvency and Chapter Code (IBC).

Taxation on each listed and unlisted bonds varies on length of the funding. Quick-term capital positive factors are taxed in line with the investor’s relevant tax slab. For long-term capital positive factors, listed bonds held for over 12 months are taxed at 10% with out indexation, whereas unlisted bonds held for over 36 months are topic to a better price of 20% with out indexation.


With Sebi now requiring OBPs to get a brokerage licence for buying and selling in listed bonds, it is very important perceive the distinctions between OBPs and conventional debt market brokers. Whereas each facilitate investor participation within the bond market, they differ in a number of facets. Below the brand new rules, OBPs should register as inventory brokers with Sebi. Nevertheless, not like conventional brokers, OBPs have the flexibleness to buy and maintain bonds on their very own stability sheets earlier than promoting them to the traders at a mark-up.

By way of offering data to consumers, each OBPs and debt brokers furnish key particulars equivalent to scores, coupon charges, yield-to-maturity, and truthful costs. That stated, the method of inserting orders varies. Debt brokers allow consumers to position restrict orders, specifying the specified value they’re prepared to pay, as compared, OBPs current clients with a single supply value.

The order routing mechanisms additionally differ for OBPs and brokers.OBPs make the most of Request for Quote (RFQ) platforms to route orders. In distinction, debt brokers leverage the buying and selling platforms of debt segments on exchanges just like the NSE and BSE for commerce execution. The NSE RFQ platform can supply improved value discovery for illiquid or much less liquid debt securities, as traders can request quotes from a number of members and examine costs. Nevertheless, this apply raises issues over transparency, because the quotes aren’t seen to different market members.

By way of bond acquisition, OBPs enable consumers to get bonds on the provided value on their platforms, however debt brokers act as intermediaries, buying bonds on behalf of traders and transferring them to their demat accounts.

Apart from. OBPs don’t cost brokerage charges, as a substitute producing income via a variety,whereas debt brokers derive their income from brokerage charges charged for his or her providers.

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Up to date: 08 Jun 2023, 10:47 PM IST